The Science of Acupuncture

Science forms the strong basis of our modern medicine.  Traditional acupuncture theories, however, are not based on anatomical, physiological, or biochemical evidence.  This made it extremely difficult for mechanistic understanding of acupuncture (#8).  In the last 40 years, many scientists, both from the Western and Eastern hemispheres, have proposed multiple physiologic models to explain the effects of acupuncture.  Endorphins, cytokines, hormones such as cortisol and oxytocin, biomechanical effects, the immune system, electromagnetic effects, autonomic and somatic nervous systems have been implicated in these models.  Unfortunately the data have been inadequate or too inconsistent to draw significant conclusions (#4).

To date, pain relief is the most thoroughly studied application of acupuncture.  Endorphin release at the spinal and supra-spinal levels is thought to be the neurotransmitter effects of acupuncture stimulation (#4).

“In 1987, Pomeranz proposed that acupuncture stimulation activates A-gamma and C afferent fibers in muscle, causing signals to be transmitted to the spinal cord, which then results in a local release of dynorphin and enkephalins.  These afferent pathways propagate to the midbrain, triggering a sequence of excitatory and inhibitory mediators in the spinal cord.  The resultant release of neurotransmitters, such as serotonin, dopamine, and norepinephrine onto the spinal cord leads to pre and postsynaptic inhibition and suppression of the pain transmission.  When these signals reach the hypothalamus and pituitary, they trigger the release of adenocorticotropic hormones (ACTH) and endorphins.  Pomeranz’s theory was confirmed by a large series of experiments by his research laboratory and other investigators.  This conceptual framework for acupuncture-induced analgesia has also been investigated in a series of neurophysiologic and imaging studies over the last three decades,”(#8).

In support of Pomeranz’s theory, opioid antagonists (eg. Naloxone) were found to block the analgesic effects of acupuncture.  In contrast, however, the Endorphin effects appear to be short-term, only lasting 10 to 20 minutes up to several days, while many acupuncture clinical trials have documented longer effects.  In addition, endorphin release can be induced by strongly stimulating any muscle afferents or free nerve ending.  Thus, the specificity and rationale of acupuncture point locations for different conditions remain unexplained (#4).

According to a recent review article on the scientific basis of acupuncture analgesia (#8), the conclusions based on current neurophysiologic studies are as follows:

  1. Afferent nociceptive pathways are essential for acupuncture analgesia.
  2. Acupuncture analgesia is mediated by way of various endogenous neurotransmitters, systemic release of enkephalin and dynorphin, and probably by decreasing the local inflammatory response via N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors.
  3. The acupuncture-induced pain threshold is gradual, with a peak effect at 20 to 40 minutes, followed by an exponential decay with a half-life of approximately 16 minutes.
  4. A prolonged period of acupuncture stimulation results in tolerance that is mediated via release of cholecystokinin octapeptide.
  5. Immunochemistry studies indicate that both pain and acupuncture activate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis.

Powerful imaging technologies such as PET scan (positron emission tomography), functional MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) and SPECT (single-proton emission computer tomography have recently allowed non-invasive visualization of anatomical and functional effects of acupuncture stimulation in the human brain.

Based on current central nervous system (CNS) imaging studies (#8), the following conclusions were made by investigators:

  1. The hypothalamus and the limbic system play a central role in acupuncture analgesia.
  2. The significant overlap between acupuncture and CNS pain pathways suggests that acupuncture stimulation may affect pain signals processed in the CNS.
  3. Traditional needling (with “de qi” sensation) and superficial needling activate two different central pathways and yet both provide clinical analgesia.

The majority of current neuroimaging studies in acupuncture are merely explorations of acupuncture signal networks.  The clinical relevance of the data obtained from these studies remains unclear (#8).

Worth mentioning, especially for the Quantum physics enthusiasts among us, is that a group of German scientists and physicists have recently demonstrated “evidence of the existence of the acupuncture meridian structure in the human body” via the use of biophotonics in the infrared spectral range (#9).

The scientists stated that: “After moxibustion (or similar light stimulation) of the body in the 3-5 micrometer range, “light channels” appear on the body, which appear to be identical to what are known as meridians in all textbook of Traditional Chinese Medicine.  These findings appear not only to confirm the existence of acupuncture meridians, but they also open a new window on understanding the energy transfer dynamics of the human body.  Furthermore, it is likely that living matter is not in the ground state, but permanently electronically excited,”(#9).

1,035 thoughts on “The Science of Acupuncture

  1. Pingback: how to make money online

  2. Pingback: Read Even more

  3. Pingback: r4 upgrade

  4. Pingback: make money online

  5. Pingback: Celine Bag

  6. Pingback: proxy server

  7. Pingback: prada outlet

  8. Pingback: xWNQxOuy

  9. Pingback: cascading failure

  10. Pingback: piumini moncler

  11. Pingback: SEO Company

  12. Pingback: michael kors handbags black friday sale

  13. Pingback: pandora black friday charms

  14. Pingback: black friday free deals

  15. Pingback: herresko på nett

  16. Pingback: cyber monday north face

  17. Pingback: louis vuitton bags

  18. Pingback: gucci outlet

  19. Pingback: prada handbags

  20. Pingback: celine bag

  21. Pingback: nike outlet

  22. Pingback: christian louboutin outlet

  23. Pingback: michael kors handbags

  24. Pingback: jordan shoes for sale

  25. Pingback: coach outlet online

  26. Pingback: cigarette electronique

  27. Pingback: cigarette electronique

  28. Pingback: iq test

  29. Pingback: jbzscmngbvsbbfbghv

  30. Pingback: EJaCLZmxSl EJaCLZmxSl

  31. Pingback: louis vuitton outlet

  32. Pingback: louis vuitton handbags

  33. Pingback: coach factory online

  34. Pingback:

  35. Pingback: gucci boots

  36. Pingback:

  37. Pingback: prada outlet

  38. Pingback: urlman 9990mine

  39. Pingback: qwxgvnmkfbrvecganfhv

  40. Pingback: axmcsnrcaxmgcnacgnr

  41. Pingback: scnkgrfmstngjsngmgcrthv

  42. Pingback: svsjgvgvbbvcfncggjkdf

  43. Pingback: acgggggggdbjmhkfasdj

  44. Pingback: gxcrcfgrtgsgabdjnhacfg

  45. Pingback: computer disposal reading

  46. Pingback: click here

  47. Pingback: IT Asset recycling berkshire

  48. Pingback: Laptop Recycling wokingham

  49. Pingback: kmart coupon code

  50. Pingback: IT Recycling slough

  51. Pingback: Million Hits Secret Bonuses

  52. Pingback: best lawyer in phoenix Arizona

  53. Pingback: get more

  54. Pingback: i need to make money

  55. Pingback: Como Perder A Barriga Rapido

  56. Pingback: indian forex market

  57. Pingback: how to catch a cheating boyfriend

  58. Pingback: shdkfhaskdghdskfhgksjdhfk

  59. Pingback: dien dan chau van nha

  60. Pingback: gclcmfgsjrmgdjsxmcg

  61. Pingback: media events

  62. Pingback: Tech

  63. Pingback: aspire 5732z ac adapter

  64. Pingback: auto insurance

  65. Pingback: Info

  66. Pingback: commonwealth tower

  67. Pingback: Brazil World Cup Tickets

  68. Pingback: afsdfasdgfhdfgh

  69. Pingback: sports tickets

  70. Pingback: liverpool tickets

  71. Pingback: Authentic Corsets

  72. Pingback: como perder a barriga rapido

  73. Pingback: kampung inggris 2013

  74. Pingback: trade option

  75. Pingback: Celebrity Videos

  76. Pingback: how to buy twitter followers

  77. Pingback: alarm systems for home reviews

  78. Pingback: home security systems for renters

  79. Pingback: vapor cigarette price

  80. Pingback: top home security systems

  81. Pingback: make money online how

  82. Pingback: Future Of Wealth 2.0 Scam

  83. Pingback: Top Spanish Restaurants in Singapore

  84. Pingback: garcinia cambogia hca side effects

  85. Pingback: pirater un compte facebook

  86. Pingback: pirater un compte facebook

  87. Pingback: barber schools in atlanta

  88. Pingback: pirater un compte facebook

  89. Pingback: share theme pro free for seo

  90. Pingback: jadwal bola

  91. Pingback: professional carpet cleaning

  92. Pingback: pirater un compte facebook gratuit

  93. Pingback: royal wharf oxley

  94. Pingback: wakeupnow compensation

  95. Pingback: Florida auto insurance

  96. Pingback: Coupon

  97. Pingback: bathroom remodeling houston

  98. Pingback: visit website

  99. Pingback: How to get facebook likes

  100. Pingback: aktoploika

  101. Pingback: san Fernando Valley

  102. Pingback: minecraft gratuit

  103. Pingback: bigger penis without pills

  104. Pingback: dien dan rao vat cong nghe

  105. Pingback: dewalt dc527 battery

  106. Pingback: battery for inspiron 1564

  107. Pingback: Viio Balestier

  108. Pingback: telefonsex

  109. Pingback: telefonsex

  110. Pingback: camsex

  111. Pingback: telefonsex

  112. Pingback: livecam telefonsex

  113. Pingback: telefonsex

  114. Pingback: telefon sex

  115. Pingback: camsex

  116. Pingback: prolimehost

  117. Pingback: telefonsex

  118. Pingback: oxford travel shop

  119. Pingback: telefonsex mit bild

  120. Pingback: telefonsex

  121. Pingback: telefonsex

  122. Pingback: telefon sex

  123. Pingback: camsex

  124. Pingback: divorce attorney denver

  125. Pingback: garcinia cambogia in gnc stores

  126. Pingback: Hair Extensions Toronto

  127. Pingback: click here

  128. Pingback: signals for binary options

  129. Pingback: ???, ???????

  130. Pingback: emirates airlines careers

  131. Pingback: Lady Iron Chef

  132. Pingback: Blog

  133. Pingback: How To Get Rid of Acne Fast

  134. Pingback: free annual credit report

  135. Pingback: Argos Store

  136. Pingback: automatic transmission lines

  137. Pingback: mikroautobusu nuoma

  138. Pingback: autobusu nuoma

  139. Pingback: affordable auto insurance quote

  140. Pingback: Auto insurance quote s online

  141. Pingback: longchamp

  142. Pingback: longchamp Sac à main en cuir Occasion - Très bon état Beige

  143. Pingback: how to overcome alcohol & drug problems

  144. Pingback: geile tiiten ficken

  145. Pingback: Giuseppe Zanotti London Velet Red Metalic Sneakers

  146. Pingback: breast lift scars

  147. Pingback: Giuseppe Zanotti London Zip Leather Sneakers

  148. Pingback: Acupuncture Fort Collins

  149. Pingback: Pasadena real estate agent

  150. Pingback: Cheap Prescription Medication

  151. Pingback: geile tiiten ficken

  152. Pingback: inteligator review

  153. Pingback: how to get rid of cold sore fast

  154. Pingback: tin tuc 24h

  155. Pingback: attic remodeling conroe

  156. Pingback: dr oz teas for weight loss

  157. Pingback: Water restoration conroe

  158. Pingback: Deck builders conroe

  159. Pingback: viagra

  160. Pingback: forever 21 reviews

  161. Pingback: weight loss garcinia cambogia reviews

  162. Pingback: pure health green coffee bean

  163. Pingback: Mold inspection conroe

  164. Pingback: free auto insurance quote online

  165. Pingback: Home theathers conroe

  166. Pingback: Leihhaus Hamburg

  167. Pingback: make him desire you review

  168. Pingback: bail bonds denver colorado

  169. Pingback: New Jersey online casinos

  170. Pingback: Homeowners insurance rates by zip code

  171. Pingback: btvsolo

  172. Pingback:

  173. Pingback: Fotografo de bodas en Zaragoza

  174. Pingback: computer

  175. Pingback: affiliate marketing tips

  176. Pingback: dien dan rao vat

  177. Pingback: california psychics

  178. Pingback: Best Chiropractic Websites

  179. Pingback: buy traffic

  180. Pingback: psychic source reviews

  181. Pingback: The Crest prince Charles

  182. Pingback: boost your bust reviews

  183. Pingback: psle science

  184. Pingback: metabolic cooking review

  185. Pingback: To make it easier to get pregnant

  186. Pingback: handmade gifts

  187. Pingback: make him desire you review

  188. Pingback: capitulos de novela

  189. Pingback: hot training

  190. Pingback: Dave Ruel

  191. Pingback: Car insurance quotes

  192. Pingback: diet pills for women that work fast

  193. Pingback: jump manual training

  194. Pingback: Fifa 14 Ultimate team coins hack

  195. Pingback: christian louboutin

  196. Pingback: doctors pain clinic

  197. Pingback: bio oil

  198. Pingback: gunblood 3

  199. Pingback: tutorial 3Ds Max

  200. Pingback: Obat Kuat

  201. Pingback: gullible fool

  202. Pingback: carpet cleaning in tulsa

  203. Pingback: Universit�

  204. Pingback: click site

  205. Pingback: alarmas

  206. Pingback: alarmas

  207. Pingback: saint francois longchamp webcam

  208. Pingback: tarjetas de plastico

  209. Pingback: home teather the woodlands tx

  210. Pingback: water restoration the woodlands tx

  211. Pingback: Game Bola

  212. Pingback: wholesale handbags and wallets

  213. Pingback: Online roulette spelen

  214. Pingback: custom deck builders the woodlands tx

  215. Pingback: mold removal the woodlands tx

  216. Pingback: attic remodeling the woodlands tx

  217. Pingback: payroll services

  218. Pingback: handyman on call denver

  219. Pingback: news of vietnam

  220. Pingback: Hay Day Hack Too Download

  221. Pingback: fifa 14 ultimate team coins adder 2014

  222. Pingback: Emergency Dentist

  223. Pingback: Apps Development Company Singapore

  224. Pingback: xbox live code generator

  225. Pingback: best bathroom remodeling in denver

  226. Pingback: bForex set-up

  227. Pingback: btv solo

  228. Pingback: bForex set-up

  229. Pingback: Boom Beach Hack Cheats 2014

  230. Pingback: gravier r�sine

  231. Pingback: cruise control diet

  232. Pingback: purificadoras de agua

  233. Pingback: caramoan tour

  234. Pingback: purificadoras de agua

  235. Pingback: sztachety

  236. Pingback: panorama ang mo kio

  237. Pingback: pure bean coffee bean extract

  238. Pingback: from here

  239. Pingback: Android Mod Apk Download

  240. Pingback: Garcinia Cambogia

  241. Pingback: specialized in repair Lab maintenance

  242. Pingback: get redirected here

  243. Pingback: Viagra.

  244. Pingback: Viagra.

  245. Pingback: Homeowner insurance quote

  246. Pingback: pooping blood

  247. Pingback: best stock trading software

  248. Pingback: State farm insurance quote

  249. Pingback: web cam porn

  250. Pingback: Turner & Oconnell

  251. Pingback: porn movie

  252. Pingback: Nuvida

  253. Pingback: international courier services

  254. Pingback: garcinia cambogia dr oz reviews

  255. Pingback: Buy Anal Sex Toys Online

  256. Pingback: Ailis

  257. Pingback: weight loss supplements

  258. Pingback: where to buy garcinia cambogia extract

  259. Pingback: free garcinia cambogia extract

  260. Pingback: professional painters Mississauga

  261. Pingback: online casino

  262. Pingback:

  263. Pingback: web design surabaya

  264. Pingback: chicago assisted living info

  265. Pingback: photo booth rentals Los Angeles

  266. Pingback: Mermaid Tavern

  267. Pingback: bitcoin

  268. Pingback: crest condo

  269. Pingback: top property agents in singapore

  270. Pingback: iskandar property

  271. Pingback: tshirt

  272. Pingback: Viio singapore

  273. Pingback: hay day online hack

  274. Pingback: jobs in michigan

  275. Pingback: lap trinh iOS

  276. Pingback: doggie bags

  277. Pingback: lap trinh iOS

  278. Pingback: Amazing Rangoli Designs, Rangoli Designs

  279. Pingback: polictics blog

  280. Pingback: af binary 60s

  281. Pingback: Hay Day Unlimited Diamonds Hack

  282. Pingback:

  283. Pingback: hong kong company formation

  284. Pingback: PBX Software

  285. Pingback: mobile car valeting

  286. Pingback: cuadros infantiles personalizados

  287. Pingback:

  288. Pingback: york bankruptcy attorney

  289. Pingback: pranie wyk?adzin w warszawie

  290. Pingback: telefonsex

  291. Pingback: telefonsex

  292. Pingback: telefonsex

  293. Pingback: scottsdale florist services

  294. Pingback: foreclosure bankruptcy attorney gettysburg pa

  295. Pingback: MH/s

  296. Pingback: telefonsex

  297. Pingback:

  298. Pingback: pre order call duty ghost

  299. Pingback: primary 5 maths

  300. Pingback: is making money online real

  301. Pingback: despicable me minion rush unlimited tokens hack

  302. Pingback: WhatsApp Spy tool Download

  303. Pingback: caramoan tour

  304. Pingback: pest control sacramento

  305. Pingback: jadwal bola

  306. Pingback: caramoan tour package

  307. Pingback: moviestarplanet diamonds hack for android

  308. Pingback: bathroom remodeling kingwood

  309. Pingback: Car Locksmith

  310. Pingback: dui lawyer salt lake city

  311. Pingback: ray ban jr

  312. Pingback: replica oakley holbrook

  313. Pingback: replica ray ban 3293

  314. Pingback: fake oakley holbrook

  315. Pingback: replica ray ban 5150

  316. Pingback: oakley juliet sale

  317. Pingback: foakleys

  318. Pingback: discount oakley frogskins

  319. Pingback: replica ray ban wayfarer 2132

  320. Pingback: fake oakley gascan

  321. Pingback: cheap rayban sunglasses sale

  322. Pingback: fake oakleys

  323. Pingback: replica oakley frogskins

  324. Pingback: oakley gascan sale

  325. Pingback: knockoff oakleys

  326. Pingback: fake oakley jacket

  327. Pingback: replica ray ban eyeglasses frames

  328. Pingback: cheap oakley oil rig

  329. Pingback: replica oakley oil rig

  330. Pingback: discount oakley oil rig

  331. Pingback: replica ray ban 4068

  332. Pingback: are bet365 any good

  333. Pingback: payment plan bankruptcy lawyer shippensburg pa

  334. Pingback: city gate showflat

  335. Pingback: city gate showflat

  336. Pingback: Best Mexican restaurant in oak creek

  337. Pingback: fashion wholesaler

  338. Pingback: patek philippe

  339. Pingback: best assisted living places in chicago

  340. Pingback: pre owned rolex

  341. Pingback: chakra healing

  342. Pingback: assisted living chicago reviews

  343. Pingback: Vincent C. Dunkley

  344. Pingback: DUI lawyer hummelstown pa fees

  345. Pingback: fashion wholesaler

  346. Pingback: Free Sex Webcams

  347. Pingback: random Asonic roofing

  348. Pingback: easy weight loss

  349. Pingback:

  350. Pingback: grumpy but gorgeous review

  351. Pingback: Problem connecting to the Internet

  352. Pingback: Quinn

  353. Pingback: jobs in nyc

  354. Pingback: Nathan

  355. Pingback: Permaculture Activist

  356. Pingback: Angel

  357. Pingback: Medicine

  358. Pingback: payday loans

  359. Pingback: Michael Kors Bags

  360. Pingback: natural health products

  361. Pingback: e-cig Ireland

  362. Pingback: best dui attorney carlisle pa

  363. Pingback: coach outlet online

  364. Pingback: cure diabetes

  365. Pingback: fitness

  366. Pingback: antalyarealestates

  367. Pingback: kitchen remodeling houston

  368. Pingback: antalyarealestates

  369. Pingback: primary 4

  370. Pingback: ??

  371. Pingback: new condo launch

  372. Pingback: harrisburg dui attorney

  373. Pingback: alkaline ionized water

  374. Pingback:

  375. Pingback: iks privado

  376. Pingback: conseguir empleo

  377. Pingback: cheap auto insurance rate

  378. Pingback: common circle education

  379. Pingback: simply click the up coming web site

  380. Pingback: life insurance quotes

  381. Pingback: Annuaire algerie

  382. Pingback: commercial cleaning service London

  383. Pingback: sexy lingerie

  384. Pingback: msi radeon hd 7770 r7770 pmd1gd5 video card

  385. Pingback: Scott S. Johnson_667788

  386. Pingback:

  387. Pingback: Average insurance rates for homes

  388. Pingback: cellulite treatment

  389. Pingback: how to get rid of depression

  390. Pingback: Hay Day Hack

  391. Pingback: louis vuitton outlet online

  392. Pingback: kho h�ng

  393. Pingback: free game recording software

  394. Pingback: black hair care

  395. Pingback:

  396. Pingback: lainaa

  397. Pingback: Articles

  398. Pingback: fifa 14 unlimited coins hack no survey

  399. Pingback: Bomb Squad

  400. Pingback: pure garcinia cambogia on dr. oz

  401. Pingback: watch dogs trainer

  402. Pingback: Ver mas

  403. Pingback: Game Bola

  404. Pingback: resident evil

  405. Pingback: beauty tips

  406. Pingback: Garden Bridges

  407. Pingback: dr oz weight loss

  408. Pingback: empresas de limpieza en terrassa

  409. Pingback: malware removal

  410. Pingback: water ionizer

  411. Pingback: lawyer

  412. Pingback: trek nepal

  413. Pingback: money saving tips

  414. Pingback: gmail correo electr�nico abrir

  415. Pingback: primary games

  416. Pingback: comic books

  417. Pingback: Info

  418. Pingback: Left and right brain epic wallpaper

  419. Pingback: Debt help

  420. Pingback: nsa sex

  421. Pingback: ccp

  422. Pingback: Microcap Millionaires

  423. Pingback:

  424. Pingback: permaculture

  425. Pingback: eCommerce Website Designing Company in Chennai

  426. Pingback: internet fraud

  427. Pingback: Plus Size Bridesmaid Dresses

  428. Pingback: jordan 11 concord

  429. Pingback: alkaline water ionizer

  430. Pingback: Wichita Falls roof repair cost 1340

  431. Pingback: How to Make a Website

  432. Pingback: Cooperstown NY Hotel

  433. Pingback: instant car insurance quote

  434. Pingback: wifi password hack

  435. Pingback: Abilene Texas roofing

  436. Pingback: homeowners insurance in Miami

  437. Pingback: Celebrity Scandals

  438. Pingback: Homeowner insurance quote

  439. Pingback: escarpins louboutin

  440. Pingback: chaussures louboutin

  441. Pingback: beach kaftans and sarongs

  442. Pingback: mediterranean food

  443. Pingback: dream board

  444. Pingback: my link

  445. Pingback: Piamo

  446. Pingback: online accredited colleges

  447. Pingback: Company

  448. Pingback: Empowering

  449. Pingback: News

  450. Pingback: web link

  451. Pingback: Solutions

  452. Pingback: flatseven men's clothing stores online

  453. Pingback: the best carpet cleaners jacksonville nc

  454. Pingback: water ionizer

  455. Pingback: Tech

  456. Pingback: landlord insurance quote

  457. Pingback: Information

  458. Pingback: watch auctions

  459. Pingback: jaeger-lecoultre

  460. Pingback: miami roofing contractors

  461. Pingback: homeowners insurance rates by zip code

  462. Pingback: he has a good point

  463. Pingback: boost adult traffic through blogs

  464. Pingback: hack tool download

  465. Pingback: FIFA World Cup 2014 Tickets

  466. Pingback: seo waterlooville

  467. Pingback: CRM System in Singapore

  468. Pingback: air max

  469. Pingback: asics running

  470. Pingback: louboutin pas cher

  471. Pingback: louboutin pas cher

  472. Pingback: zapatillas asics running

  473. Pingback: louboutin 37

  474. Pingback: Fake Oakley Sunglasses

  475. Pingback: Health

  476. Pingback: lida

  477. Pingback: n.y. car insurance

  478. Pingback: motor club of america scam

  479. Pingback: marina one residences

  480. Pingback: water ionizers

  481. Pingback: how to get a six pack fast

  482. Pingback: Coupon

  483. Pingback: Finance

  484. Pingback: asics running

  485. Pingback: how to use ipad tutorial

  486. Pingback: Fake Oakley Sunglasses

  487. Pingback: clash of clans cheats

  488. Pingback: clash of clans hack

  489. Pingback:

  490. Pingback: clash of clans hack

  491. Pingback: mulberry sale

  492. Pingback: Liberty

  493. Pingback: water alkalizer

  494. Pingback: 2014 clash of clans cheats

  495. Pingback: the creek pricing

  496. Pingback: hack tool for clash of clans

  497. Pingback: montblanc stylo

  498. Pingback: find houses

  499. Pingback: pet urns

  500. Pingback: Phen375 Reviews

  501. Pingback: game bola

  502. Pingback: Trading

  503. Pingback: kampung inggris pare

  504. Pingback: Louboutin femme

  505. Pingback: cash advance USA Louisiana

  506. Pingback: escarpin louboutin

  507. Pingback: Übersetzungsbüro Dortmund

  508. Pingback: Business

  509. Pingback: dr oz fat burners

  510. Pingback:

  511. Pingback:

  512. Pingback: asics running hombre

  513. Pingback: louboutin pas cher

  514. Pingback: マイケルコース 財布

  515. Pingback: need sell home fast

  516. Pingback: ego battery

  517. Pingback: Camp

  518. Pingback: free money system scam

  519. Pingback: motor trade insurance

  520. Pingback: zenith

  521. Pingback:

  522. Pingback:

  523. Pingback: ルブタン サンダル

  524. Pingback: abercrombie pas cher

  525. Pingback: Technology

  526. Pingback: stars

  527. Pingback: platos ducha resina

  528. Pingback: red frankincense incense

  529. Pingback: Shutters

  530. Pingback: frozen free fall hack

  531. Pingback: air max femme

  532. Pingback: ブルガリ 激安

  533. Pingback: Home

  534. Pingback: water ionizers

  535. Pingback: OR Tambo International Airport

  536. Pingback: asics padel

  537. Pingback: Fashion

  538. Pingback: e cigarette

  539. Pingback: 時計コピー

  540. Pingback: フェンディ バゲット

  541. Pingback: Jason Hope

  542. Pingback: indian kaftan

  543. Pingback: coping with anxiety

  544. Pingback: alkaline water machine

  545. Pingback: maths past papers

  546. Pingback: ニューバランス 574

  547. Pingback: air jordan

  548. Pingback: ヴィトン アウトレット

  549. Pingback: wow gold

  550. Pingback:

  551. Pingback: シャネル 財布

  552. Pingback: lace and appliques supplies

  553. Pingback: Glendale Dentist

  554. Pingback: Fitted kitchens Hertfordshire

  555. Pingback: taxi 12

  556. Pingback: oakley pas cher

  557. Pingback: ヴィトン スーパーコピー

  558. Pingback: air jordan

  559. Pingback: this site

  560. Pingback: Pokrov spiritually religious movement

  561. Pingback: abercrombie

  562. Pingback: nXTMCCQQ

  563. Pingback: nike free 5.0

  564. Pingback: melagenina

  565. Pingback: louboutin pas cher

  566. Pingback:

  567. Pingback: Oakley Asian Fit Sunglasses uk

  568. Pingback: asics gt2160

  569. Pingback: Financial

  570. Pingback: home owners insurance companies

  571. Pingback: click here

  572. Pingback: wowgold

  573. Pingback: chaussures louboutin pas cher

  574. Pingback: hay day diamonds hack

  575. Pingback: asics gel cumulus 14

  576. Pingback: fifa 14 points hack

  577. Pingback: mulberry group plc

  578. Pingback: cheap asics

  579. Pingback: asics racer

  580. Pingback: asics gel cirrus33

  581. Pingback: asics gt 2170 womens

  582. Pingback: フェンディ 財布

  583. Pingback: asics contend

  584. Pingback: asics supreme lyteflex

  585. Pingback: top rated asics running shoes for women

  586. Pingback: kelp

  587. Pingback: ミュウミュウ 財布

  588. Pingback: asics gel 2150

  589. Pingback: asics gel scram

  590. Pingback: asics gel kayano 17

  591. Pingback: asics wrestling shoes

  592. Pingback: asic running shoes

  593. Pingback: replique sac ysl

  594. Pingback: asics gel lyte 3

  595. Pingback: how to build asic miner

  596. Pingback: asics gel scram women

  597. Pingback: asics 2160

  598. Pingback: prix sac louis vuitton

  599. Pingback: asics cumulus

  600. Pingback: asic gt 2150

  601. Pingback: asics tokidoki

  602. Pingback: Top Vegetarian Food In Singapore

  603. Pingback: asics shoes for women walking

  604. Pingback: asics kayano 19

  605. Pingback: Water damage restoration the woodlands

  606. Pingback: ルイヴィトン 財布

  607. Pingback: Kitchen remodeling

  608. Pingback: asics noosa

  609. Pingback: Home theaters

  610. Pingback: asics men kayano 18

  611. Pingback: watch free movies online without downloading

  612. Pingback: kangen water machine

  613. Pingback: Outdoor kitchens remodeling

  614. Pingback: asics gt 2170 mens

  615. Pingback: プラダ 店舗

  616. Pingback: hogan vendita

  617. Pingback: chaussures louboutin

  618. Pingback: Delsie Colvard

  619. Pingback: mulberry sale

  620. Pingback: Watch this video

  621. Pingback:

  622. Pingback: borse gucci

  623. Pingback: surveys for money

  624. Pingback: karen millen outlets

  625. Pingback: womens watches

  626. Pingback: mini laptop price in india

  627. Pingback: Knights and dragons hack

  628. Pingback: Cheap Givenchy Handbags

  629. Pingback: canon camera

  630. Pingback: hollister uk

  631. Pingback: prada sunglasses outlet

  632. Pingback: sac longchamp pas cher

  633. Pingback: Nuovo Occhiali Da Sole Ray Ban Verde Lente Rosa Telaio

  634. Pingback: tenerife forum

  635. Pingback:

  636. Pingback: free currency converter app for android

  637. Pingback: help moppy

  638. Pingback: mbt shoes

  639. Pingback: balenciaga homme

  640. Pingback: latex waist cincher

  641. Pingback:

  642. Pingback:

  643. Pingback: private diploma schools in singapore

  644. Pingback: One Surin Upper Serangoon

  645. Pingback: YSL

  646. Pingback: hollister online shop

  647. Pingback: purificadoras de agua

  648. Pingback: Toronto Car Service

  649. Pingback: Prediksi Bola

  650. Pingback: asics gel nimbus 13 vs 14

  651. Pingback: Polder casino

  652. Pingback: Dating Love

  653. Pingback: information on bankruptcy

  654. Pingback: mantenimiento paginas web

  655. Pingback: cheap wow gold

  656. Pingback: title loans

  657. Pingback: chapter 7 bankruptcy

  658. Pingback: マークジェイコブス トートバッグ

  659. Pingback: asics womens shoes

  660. Pingback: hermes sac kelly

  661. Pingback: replica Louis Vuitton bags

  662. Pingback: men asics

  663. Pingback: buy wow gold

  664. Pingback: tigers asics

  665. Pingback: asics womens tennis shoes

  666. Pingback: birkin hermes costo

  667. Pingback: asics cushioning running shoes

  668. Pingback: Pre Order Concord 11s

  669. Pingback: Buy Sport Blue 6s

  670. Pingback: mulberry sale

  671. Pingback: garcinia cambogia reviews

  672. Pingback: asics running shoes

  673. Pingback: all black asics

  674. Pingback: dior

  675. Pingback: air max pas cher

  676. Pingback: Carti crestine

  677. Pingback: cheap car insurance

  678. Pingback: redirected here

  679. Pingback: part time degree singapore

  680. Pingback: City gate singapore

  681. Pingback: asics onitsuka

  682. Pingback: Borse Prada Vela Nylon Medico BL0397 a Moro

  683. Pingback: traders insurance

  684. Pingback: chapter 13 bankruptcy explained

  685. Pingback: how to get media citations

  686. Pingback: digital cameras for education

  687. Pingback: Jordan 3 Sport Blue

  688. Pingback: phai di cho buoc chan dam mau

  689. Pingback: Cheap Jordan Brazil Pack

  690. Pingback: Viio pricing

  691. Pingback: desi nude girl

  692. Pingback: filing bankruptcy

  693. Pingback: what is alkaline water

  694. Pingback:

  695. Pingback: chapter 11 bankruptcy

  696. Pingback: Amddram

  697. Pingback: asics womens running shoes

  698. Pingback: ???????????????????? pantip

  699. Pingback: Sport Blue 6s Online

  700. Pingback: swamp murders s02e02 while she lay sleeping hdtv x264 w4f

  701. Pingback: bankruptcy forms

  702. Pingback: Green Room Academy Review

  703. Pingback: Shoes, Size

  704. Pingback: creacion paginas web

  705. Pingback: asics neon running shoes

  706. Pingback: Authentic Low Infrared 11s

  707. Pingback: Pensionskasse Beratung

  708. Pingback: Glamour Me Studio

  709. Pingback: 6463 NW 102nd Terrace

  710. Pingback: プラダ トートバッグ

  711. Pingback: Coach outlet store

  712. Pingback: herafa w35806 28 wedding dress elegant one shoulder sleeveless delicate beading lace applique long 0 a line white

  713. Pingback: Sport Blue 6s 2014

  714. Pingback: Carmine 6s For Sale

  715. Pingback: Chanel handbags outlet

  716. Pingback: bankruptcy lawyers

  717. Pingback: Authentic Sport Blue 6s

  718. Pingback: Where To Buy Wolf Grey 3s

  719. Pingback: alviero martini scarpe uomo

  720. Pingback: Dwarven Foundry

  721. Pingback: Sport Blue 6s Online

  722. Pingback: toms outlet

  723. Pingback: North Andover MA Solar Panels For Home

  724. Pingback: real car speed need for racer android apk game full download

  725. Pingback: Solar Panels For Home Boston

  726. Pingback: MA Solar Panels For Home

  727. Pingback: North Andover MA�s Solar Energy

  728. Pingback: Top Solar Panels Installation Companies In Newton Massachusetts

  729. Pingback: Top Basement Finishing Contractors In Boston

  730. Pingback: occhiali da vista ray ban

  731. Pingback: prada bags australia stores

  732. Pingback: borse prada

  733. Pingback: Best Solar Energy Companies In Massachusetts

  734. Pingback: Wp Weekend Phoenix

  735. Pingback: Air Jordan 3Lab5 Metallic Silver Online

  736. Pingback: Solar Energy Boston MA

  737. Pingback: open back nightgown

  738. Pingback: Solar Energy Newton

  739. Pingback: Newburyport MA Solar Energy

  740. Pingback: Full Report

  741. Pingback: asics gel blur review

  742. Pingback: debat capres 2014

  743. Pingback: debat capres 2014

  744. Pingback: asics gel blur 33

  745. Pingback: debat capres 2014

  746. Pingback: bags

  747. Pingback: coches de embargos

  748. Pingback: remove fluoride from water

  749. Pingback: debat capres 2014

  750. Pingback: telefonsex bild

  751. Pingback: San Antonio Latino Singles

  752. Pingback: phone sex operator rules

  753. Pingback: telefonsex nummern

  754. Pingback: roofing fort lauderdale

  755. Pingback: drug detox program

  756. Pingback: drug detox

  757. Pingback: drug rehab

  758. Pingback: drug rehab programs

  759. Pingback: Happy Friendship Day Quotes

  760. Pingback: browser spiele

  761. Pingback: telefonsex

  762. Pingback: water ionizer comparison

  763. Pingback: alkaline water

  764. Pingback: Tips and tricks

  765. Pingback: telefonsex

  766. Pingback: telefon sex

  767. Pingback: asics whizzer

  768. Pingback: telefonsex livecam

  769. Pingback: where to buy asics gel lyte iii

  770. Pingback: asics gel nimbus

  771. Pingback: asics shoes

  772. Pingback: neutral asics running shoes for men

  773. Pingback: asics gel nimbus 13

  774. Pingback: asics gel kayano 18

  775. Pingback: asics gel numbus

  776. Pingback: cursos

  777. Pingback: best mortgage broker in Canada

  778. Pingback: online business systems

  779. Pingback: k�p na

  780. Pingback: asics running

  781. Pingback: branding agency singapore

  782. Pingback: Kerry Jacobson

  783. Pingback: Marina One Singapore

  784. Pingback: driving lessons swadlincote

  785. Pingback: Computer Repair Services Richardson

  786. Pingback: BEOGRAD APARTMANI

  787. Pingback: Lily

  788. Pingback: Highline Residences

  789. Pingback: driving lessons newark on trent

  790. Pingback:

  791. Pingback: concierge travel

  792. Pingback: asics running shoes

  793. Pingback: asics gel

  794. Pingback: electric bikes

  795. Pingback: addrocket

  796. Pingback: watch dogs trainer pc

  797. Pingback: rap beats for sale

  798. Pingback: get rid of mice

  799. Pingback: mechanics insurance

  800. Pingback: water ionizers

  801. Pingback: brigade hack

  802. Pingback: vinyl sheds

  803. Pingback: florida new homes for sale

  804. Pingback: flower o�nline

  805. Pingback: demonic possession

  806. Pingback: cheap asics

  807. Pingback: asics running shoes men reviews

  808. Pingback: Hire a private investigator in Baltimore

  809. Pingback: Multiple level marketing

  810. Pingback: asics onitsuka tiger

  811. Pingback: top rated phones

  812. Pingback: Alternative Medicine

  813. Pingback: Limo hire Perth

  814. Pingback: quickest way to lose weight

  815. Pingback: Marketing Automation Tools

  816. Pingback: Career Guide

  817. Pingback: casino bingo

  818. Pingback: read more

  819. Pingback:

  820. Pingback: network marketing

  821. Pingback: sacred 3 trainer

  822. Pingback:

  823. Pingback: Timber Deck Sydney

  824. Pingback: pizza piazza

  825. Pingback: Goodwood residence singapore

  826. Pingback: mega millions winners

  827. Pingback: My Advertising Pays Traffic

  828. Pingback: top 10 bookies

  829. Pingback: perder peso con la Garcinia Cambogia

  830. Pingback: sell hair

  831. Pingback: Toys

  832. Pingback: guaranteed payday loans uk

  833. Pingback: what is zija all about

  834. Pingback: email marketing

  835. Pingback: alkaline water machine

  836. Pingback: asics gel nimbus sale womens

  837. Pingback: inboxblueprint

  838. Pingback: edward bass film director

  839. Pingback: new condo launch singapore 2014

  840. Pingback: asic squash shoes

  841. Pingback: asics gt 2000 nyc

  842. Pingback: Proactol XS discount code

  843. Pingback: ottawa granite business

  844. Pingback: gay porn movies

  845. Pingback: ??

  846. Pingback: water ionizer

  847. Pingback: dewa poker

  848. Pingback: asic training shoes

  849. Pingback: asics return policy

  850. Pingback: motor trade insurance

  851. Pingback: asics gel cross trainers womens

  852. Pingback: asics gel nimbus 11 mens

  853. Pingback: asics nimbus

  854. Pingback: side bags

  855. Pingback: trivandrum apartments

  856. Pingback: asics noosa

  857. Pingback: Australia rugby shirt

  858. Pingback: highline residences

  859. Pingback: Jayce

  860. Pingback: e cigarette review

  861. Pingback: casting call

  862. Pingback: asics gel maverick

  863. Pingback: Havelock II

  864. Pingback: SemStar

  865. Pingback: Bathroom remodeling the woodlands

  866. Pingback: wine decanters

  867. Pingback: where can i buy pure garcinia cambogia in stores

  868. Pingback: Home theater the woodlands

  869. Pingback: the best garcinia cambogia extract pill

  870. Pingback: Water damage restoration

  871. Pingback: Outdoor kitchens woodlands

  872. Pingback: Highline residences price pricing

  873. Pingback: Wellnesshotels

  874. Pingback: asics onitsuka tiger

  875. Pingback: caramoan package

  876. Pingback: Duo Residences Singapore

  877. Pingback: jeunesse luminesce skin care

  878. Pingback: asic 2170 women

  879. Pingback: PTCSmarty

  880. Pingback: asics kayano 18

  881. Pingback: wealth management gold

  882. Pingback: asics nimbus 14

  883. Pingback: Chanel Replica 2014 Handbags

  884. Pingback: bebek malzemeleri

  885. Pingback: New Songs 2014

  886. Pingback: Online Casinos Bonuses

  887. Pingback: asics kayano 19

  888. Pingback: asics onitsuka tiger

  889. Pingback: sony vegas pro 13 full free download

  890. Pingback: backlink checker

  891. Pingback: how to be a property agent

  892. Pingback: Australia 108 World Class

  893. Pingback: cheap asics

  894. Pingback: asics gel blur 33

  895. Pingback: cheap asics

  896. Pingback: Australia 108

  897. Pingback: Clermont

  898. Pingback: asics gel

  899. Pingback: piala dunia

  900. Pingback: toshiba tablet

  901. Pingback: See here

  902. Pingback: asics kayano 18

  903. Pingback: cheap asics

  904. Pingback: asics blur 33

  905. Pingback: Fake Oakley Scalpel

  906. Pingback: classic asics

  907. Pingback: asics gel nimbus

  908. Pingback: cheap asics

  909. Pingback: insane value

  910. Pingback: tattoo removal

  911. Pingback: Panorama price

  912. Pingback: cheap asics

  913. Pingback: Indian wedding caterers

  914. Pingback: winstrol

  915. Pingback: Highline residence singapore

  916. Pingback: gana un ipad 4 16gb

  917. Pingback: valores unimed curitiba

  918. Pingback: Nike Coupon Code

  919. Pingback: Bathroom remodeling kingwood

  920. Pingback: Roofing contractors houston

  921. Pingback: movie checker

  922. Pingback: ladyfem

  923. Pingback: cozy cove

  924. Pingback: asics nimbus 14

  925. Pingback: daily visitors

  926. Pingback: Marina one new launch

  927. Pingback:

  928. Pingback: Marina Blue Singapore

  929. Pingback: source

  930. Pingback:

  931. Pingback: automobiliu supirkimas vilniuje

  932. Pingback: asics kayano 18

  933. Pingback: gold buyers

  934. Pingback: Short status for whatsapp

  935. Pingback: double glazing cost

  936. Pingback: Bellewaters condo

  937. Pingback: caramoan

  938. Pingback: Illegal Gambling

  939. Pingback: courier insurance

  940. Pingback: asics gel blur 33

  941. Pingback: a fantastic read

  942. Pingback: buy adderall

  943. Pingback: marmaris transfers

  944. Pingback: passive income

  945. Pingback: raf simons asics

  946. Pingback: autologous

  947. Pingback: asics t095n

  948. Pingback: Replica Handbags

  949. Pingback: asics gel nimbus 14

  950. Pingback: notepad bluebox

  951. Pingback: asics gel 1150

  952. Pingback: ghrp-6 side effects

  953. Pingback: cheap asics

  954. Pingback: Blogger treadmill reviews

  955. Pingback: kahala management

  956. Pingback: Joy

  957. Pingback: have a peek at this web-site

  958. Pingback: Panorama price

  959. Pingback: Seventy St Patricks condo

  960. Pingback: asics kayano 18

  961. Pingback: Highline Residence Tiong Bahru

  962. Pingback: firmenadressen kaufen

  963. Pingback: asics gel blur

  964. Pingback: Konsultan Jasa SEO

  965. Pingback: telefono erotico

  966. Pingback: sexual health

  967. Pingback: hacking

  968. Pingback: asics gel kahana

  969. Pingback: buy ambien

  970. Pingback: house loan

  971. Pingback: asics gel nimbus 13

  972. Pingback: xlovecam hack tool 2013

  973. Pingback: marriage annulment

  974. Pingback: divorce lawyers in md

  975. Pingback: hearthstone arena guide

  976. Pingback: asics gel nimbus 14 review

  977. Pingback: banana blue

  978. Pingback: MCA Scam

  979. Pingback: asics gel nimbus 14

  980. Pingback: Marina one pricing

  981. Pingback: buy Meridia

  982. Pingback: buy ambien

  983. Pingback: buy alprazolam online

  984. Pingback: adderall

  985. Pingback: buy adipex

  986. Pingback: tramadol online

  987. Pingback: buy xenical

  988. Pingback: clonazepam online

  989. Pingback: womens asics

  990. Pingback: buy ambien

  991. Pingback: buy tramadol

  992. Pingback: real estate news

  993. Pingback: FUCK YOU SCAMMER

  994. Pingback: asics gore tex trail running shoes

  995. Pingback: tv uzivo

  996. Pingback: buy ambien online

  997. Pingback: uk rappers

  998. Pingback: Massage Therapists Lubbock

  999. Pingback: Locksmith

  1000. Pingback: emol2

  1001. Pingback: HotelGuitar

  1002. Pingback: asics gel kayano 18

  1003. Pingback: vinyl cut letters

  1004. Pingback: naples florida

  1005. Pingback: deals

  1006. Pingback: 4 Tips For Raising Your Search Engine Rankings

  1007. Pingback:

  1008. Pingback: buy tramadol online

  1009. Pingback: buy tramadol

  1010. Pingback: asics tiger running shoes

  1011. Pingback: women asics gel nimbus

  1012. Pingback: asics women gel nimbus 13

  1013. Pingback: asics track and field shoes

  1014. Pingback: adipex online

  1015. Pingback: ambien online

  1016. Pingback: ativan

  1017. Pingback: hydrocodone online

  1018. Pingback: asics womens running shoes

  1019. Pingback: buy ativan

  1020. Pingback: asics wrestling shoes

  1021. Pingback: property loan

  1022. Pingback: Emeline

  1023. Pingback: garcinia cambogia natural

  1024. Pingback: asics womens running shoes

  1025. Pingback: sondage

  1026. Pingback: buying facebook likes

  1027. Pingback: Meyerise price

  1028. Pingback: loans

  1029. Pingback: I Cant Sleep

  1030. Pingback: international property finance

  1031. Pingback: asic gel nimbus

  1032. Pingback: auto accident chiropractor

  1033. Pingback: chiropractor in fort worth tx

  1034. Pingback: Manufacturers

  1035. Pingback: Era Viet Nam